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Philosophy & Religion

Humans have long pondered not only how we came to be, but also why we came to be. The earliest Greek philosophers focused their attention upon the origin and nature of the physical world; later philosophers have theorized about the nature of knowledge, truth, good and evil, love, friendship, and much more. Thus, philosophy involves a methodical assessment of any and all aspects of human existence and experience. The realms of philosophy and religion have sometimes intersected in conducting inquiries such as these. As with philosophy, the study of religion underscores how humankind has long speculated about its origins. The possibility of a higher being (or beings) to which livings things owe their existence has long captived human thought. Many religions also offer their own views on the nature of good and evil, and they may prescribe guidelines and judgment on different kinds of human behavior.
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Featured content, May 22, 2020

Celebrating Ramadan
The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is a time for Muslims around the world to renew their focus on spiritual life.
Spotlight / Philosophy & Religion
Prayer beads on Quran or Koran written in Arabic Islam's sacred and liturgical language. text, words, Ramadan
Who Wrote the King James Bible?
The King James Version is probably the most well-known version of “The Good Book,” but who exactly wrote it?
Demystified / Philosophy & Religion
King James Version (KJV). Holy Bible Giant Print References Concordance Red Letter. King James Version (KJV) King James Bible Holy Bible Antique Christianity Church Gospel old book Religion religious Spirituality Homepage blog 2011 arts and entertainment
Brain Games: 8 Philosophical Puzzles and Paradoxes
Dust off your thinking cap.
List / Philosophy & Religion
Casino. Gambling. Slots. Slot machine. Luck. Rich. Neon. Hit the Jackpot neon sign lights up casino window.
The Social Contract and Philosophy
Why should the state exist, and how much power should it have? The social contract may provide the answer.
Companion / Philosophy & Religion
John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher, regarded as the father of British empiricism author of Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). His political philosophy exerted considerable influence on the American revolution and French revolution.
Ethics
Ethics, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. The term is also applied…
Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
Code of Hammurabi
Humanism
Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and…
Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Metaphysics
Metaphysics, branch of philosophy whose topics in antiquity and the Middle Ages were the first causes of things and the nature…
Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
Aristotle
Historiography
Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the…
Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
Oracle bone inscriptions

Philosophy & Religion Quizzes

Statue of Confucius in Beijing, China
Confucianism
How much do you know about the teachings of Confucius? Test your knowledge with this quiz.
Saint Thomas Aquinas. Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas, altarpiece by Francesco Traini, 1363; in Santa Caterina, Pisa, Italy. St. Thomas Aquinas (c1225-1274) Italian philosopher and theologian. Dominican order of monks (black friars).
Saints
We can’t promise you a sainthood, but improve your saintly knowledge with this quiz.
Diwali holiday lamps or candles, India.  (Indian holiday, oil lamp, flame,  candle, fire)
Hinduism
Hinduism is one of the most popular religions on Earth. How much do you know about its philosophy, belief, and ritual? Test…
indonesia bee country map
Islam
How much do you know about the Prophet Muhammad? How about holy cities? Test your knowledge of Islam with this quiz.
Plant. Flower. Nymphaea. Water lily. Lotus. Aquatic plant. Close-up of three pink water lilies.
Plants with Religious Meaning
Test your knowledge of sacred plants with this quiz.
Christmas presents under the tree, gifts.
Celebrating Christmas Quiz
How much do you know about Christmas? Take this quiz to test your knowledge.
Hypatia. Hypatia (b. c355-415) Egyptian Neoplatonist philosopher who was the first notable woman in mathematics. She was murdered by followers of Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria.
Odd Facts About Philosophers
Who says philosophers don’t lead interesting lives? Test your knowledge of a few things you probably didn’t learn in Philosophy…
Pages of the Qur'an also spelled Quran and Koran the sacred scripture of Islam. Muslim holy book Arabic religion
The Qur?ān
How much do you know about Islam’s holy book?
Anastasius II (died 498) pope from 496 after a 16th century illustration
Pope Quiz
Think you know everything about the office of the Supreme Pontiff? Test your knowledge with this quiz.
Agathon (centre) greeting guests in Plato's Symposium, oil on canvas by Anselm Feuerbach, 1869; in the Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Philosophy 101
What is existentialism? Who was Socrates? What is idealism? Test your knowledge of these topics and more with this Philosophy…
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Philosophy & Religion
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Philosophy & Religion Subcategories

Thor Ancient Religions & Mythology
What did our ancestors believe in? How did they view the possibility of an afterlife? How did their beliefs influence modern religion and spirituality? Explore these questions and more.
Articles
Auguste Comte Ethical Issues
What moral precepts guide us through tricky situations that may arise in relation to friendships, family, communities, and the work environment? Right and wrong are not always defined in the same way across different cultures.
Articles
Forensic anthropologist examining a human skull found in a mass grave in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2005. Humanities
The study of humankind with an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself.
Articles
Immanuel Kant Philosophers
Here you'll find the thinkers and theorists who have expressed their own ideas about such topics as the nature of humankind's relationship with the metaphysical world, the definitions of truth and knowledge, and the conditions of existence. From ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle to later notable philosophers such as René Descartes and Immanuel Kant, philosophy's great thinkers have approached sensitive ethical and existential issues from a variety of different angles. Their ideas have influenced the way we look at our world and the way we relate to one another as human beings.
Articles
Laozi Philosophical Issues
Are you ready to delve into the myriad possible answers to such complex questions as "What makes an action virtuous?" or "What is the nature of consciousness?" Do you embrace weighty topics such as the relative merits of empiricism and rationalism? An inquisitive spirit is all but a prerequisite for many of the topics listed here, which deal with the different approaches to and ideas about the big questions of life.
Articles
reclining Buddha Religious Beliefs
Our religious beliefs, such as they are, can affect our lifestyle, our perceptions, and the manner in which we relate to fellow human beings. Is there a higher power (or powers) that governs the universe and judges all of us? Can committing a mortal sin mean the death of a soul, or is there a chance for forgiveness? The answers to such questions differ widely across different religions.
Articles
Pope Gregory VII, after his expulsion from Rome, laying a ban of excommunication on the clergy “together with the raging king” (Henry IV of Germany), drawing from the 12th-century chronicle of Otto of Freising; in the library of the University of Jena, Germany. Religious Personages & Scholars
This general category includes a selection of more specific topics.
Articles
subcategory placeholder Religious Places
Human beings tend to relate to their religious beliefs through symbolism. Religious and sacred places—common destinations for pilgrims—represent a physical connection that helps believers express their devotion.
Articles
Igor Stravinsky Sacred Art & Music
This general category includes a selection of more specific topics.
Articles
Krishna; Arjuna Scriptures
Sacred scriptures of all religions, viewed as the word of God or inspired by God, have influenced the moral and ethical standards of countries, peoples, and religious groups. Their interpretation has always been a subject of discussion and, at times, controversy.
Articles
Christ as Ruler, with the Apostles and Evangelists (represented by the beasts). The female figures are believed to be either Santa Pudenziana and Santa Praxedes or symbols of the Jewish and Gentile churches. Mosaic in the apse of Santa Pudenziana, Rome, AD 401–417. Spirituality
This general category includes a selection of more specific topics.
Articles
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